Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
The starling is a passeriform bird which roosts in copses and woods, but for some years has shown a strong preference to roosting in urban areas. This phenomenon is most likely linked to both the more favourable climatic conditions (higher temperature, less humidity and wind, etc.) which allow starlings to use up less energy to keep their body temperature constant, and to greater conditions of safety due to the lower presence of natural predators and the absence of hunters.
Problems related to starlings in the city almost exclusively concern the areas underneath their roosts where a significant layer of droppings accumulate on the material underneath which, apart from damaging a lot of material, makes paving slippery.
Directly combatting starlings is neither completely justified nor applicable when it is possible to evaluate possible deterrent techniques aimed at making certain areas unattractive.