Green areas

City pigeon

City pigeon (Columba livia domestic variety)  The city pigeon is a variety derived from the wild species Columba livia which has been bred for some time. The problem with the spread of the domestic variety in urban centres is basically the result of birds accidentally escaping from breeding centres and from abandoning examples which have been bred which, in urban centres (particularly
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Starling

Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) The starling is a passeriform bird which roosts in copses and woods, but for some years has shown a strong preference to roosting in urban areas. This phenomenon is most likely linked to both the more favourable climatic conditions (higher temperature, less humidity and wind, etc.) which allow starlings to use up less energy to keep their
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Rat and mouse

Rat (Rattus norvegicus is Rattus rattus) and mouse (Mus domesticus) The rat is a rodent well adapted to living close to humans and has a strong ability to exploit the changes that man actually makes to the environment. Rattus norvegicus or sewage rat has a lifestyle more closely linked to subterranean environments and environments near watercourses, whereas Rattus rattus or
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Bee

Bee (Apis mellifera) The honey bee is certainly the best known and most useful insect. The insect lives in pluriannual, matriarchal colonies consisting of a fertile female (queen), thousands of sterile females (workers) and, seasonally, males (drones). In spring colonies multiply, giving rise to the phenomenon of swarming. Swarms are made up of a queen and a large number of
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Wasps and hornets

Wasps and hornets (Vespula spp., Polistes spp. and Vespa crabro) Wasps are social Hymenoptera organized in annual matriarchal colonies that construct nests using suitably kneaded and moulded wood fibre. The shape of the nests varies depending on the species and their location varies greatly depending on the environmental characteristics; generally, nests are constructed in attics, the cavities of rolling shutters,
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Hard-bodied tick

Hard-bodied tick (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) The hard-bodied tick is a mite characterised by an ovoid body on the back of which there is a more or less extensive shield depending on species and sex. From a biological point of view, they are bloodsucking ectoparasitic arthropods at all stages of mobile development. Of particular interest in the urban environment is
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Mosquito

Mosquito (Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles sp.) Mosquitoes are a species of fly associated with larval development in water and the sucking of blood by females from various animal species. Of course, each species has precise environmental requirements, for example Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has adapted to man-made environments by successfully completing its cycle of development in micro-polluted watercourses, conditions
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Horsefly

Horsefly (Stomoxys calcitrans) The horse fly is a species of fly that at first glance may be very similar to the housefly, from which it differs not so much in terms of the environments it frequents, but from the adults' diet. This species typically prefers cowsheds and stalls and is present in stables and open areas near stables. It can
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Lace bug

Lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) The lace bug is a plant parasite closely associated with the banana. The insect completes its entire development cycle from egg to adult in a tree. Both adults and juvenile stages feed on the lymph that they remove by puncturing the leaves. Heavily infested trees have leaves with no pigment which, in the case of severe
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Pine processionary

Pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) The pine processionary is a moth which at the larval stage feeds on the needles of different species of Pinus and Cedrus and is particularly damaging to forests. The development cycle involves laying eggs on the needles in the spring; the larvae which hatch begin to feed on pine needles immediately. With the approach of winter,
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